Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)


9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  



[1] Use of Estimates and Assumptions

The preparation of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. The significant estimates and assumptions made in the preparation of the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include legal fees and related costs, income taxes, valuation of patents, and equity method investments, including evaluation of the Company’s basis difference. Actual results could be materially different from those estimates, upon which the carrying values were based.


[2] Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company maintains cash deposits in high quality financial institutions insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). Accounts at each institution are insured by the FDIC up to $250,000. At September 30, 2022, the Company maintained a cash balance of $2,597,000 in excess of the FDIC insured limit. As of September 30, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company had cash equivalents of $16,721,000 and $33,385,000, respectively.

The Company considers all highly liquid short-term investments, including certificates of deposit and money market funds, that are purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.


[3] Marketable Securities

The Company’s marketable securities are comprised of certificates of deposit, with original maturity greater than three months from date of purchase, government securities, fixed income mutual funds, and a corporate bond. The Company’s marketable securities are measured at fair value and are accounted for in accordance with ASU 2016-01. Unrealized holding gains and losses on certificates of deposit, government securities, and fixed income mutual funds are recorded in net realized and unrealized gain (loss) from investments on the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

Unrealized holding gains and losses, net of the related tax effect, on corporate bonds and notes are excluded from earnings and are reported as a separate component of stockholders’ equity until realized. Dividend and interest income are recognized when earned. Realized gains and losses are included in earnings and are derived using the specific identification method for determining the cost of the marketable securities.


[4] Revenue Recognition

Under ASC 606, revenue is recognized when the Company completes the licensing of its intellectual property to its licensees, in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for licensing its intellectual property.

The Company determines revenue recognition through the following steps:

identification of the license agreement;
identification of the performance obligations in the license agreement;
determination of the consideration for the license;
allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
recognition of revenue when the Company satisfies its performance obligations.

The Company relies on royalty reports received from third party licensees to record its revenue. From time to time, the Company may audit or otherwise dispute royalties reported from licensees. Any adjusted royalty revenue as a result of such audits or dispute is recorded by the Company in the period in which such adjustment is agreed to by the Company and the licensee or otherwise determined.

Revenue from the Company’s patent licensing business is generated from negotiated license agreements. The timing and amount of revenue recognized from each licensee depends upon a variety of factors, including the terms of each agreement and the nature of the obligations of the parties. These agreements may include, but not be limited to, elements related to past infringement liabilities, non-refundable upfront license fees, and ongoing royalties on licensed products sold by the licensee. Generally, in the event of a litigation settlement related to the Company’s assertion of patent infringement involving its intellectual property, defendants will either pay (i) a non-refundable lump sum payment for a non-exclusive fully-paid license, or (ii) a non-refundable lump sum payment (license initiation fee) together with an ongoing obligation to pay quarterly or monthly royalties to the Company for the life of the licensed patent.


[5] Equity Method Investments

Equity method investments are equity securities in entities the Company does not control but over which it has the ability to exercise significant influence. These investments are accounted for under the equity method of accounting in accordance with ASC 323, Investments — Equity Method and Joint Ventures (see Note J hereof). Equity method investments are measured at cost minus impairment, if any, plus or minus the Company’s share of an investee’s income or loss. The Company’s proportionate share of the income or loss from equity method investments is recognized on a one-quarter lag. When the Company’s carrying value in an equity method investment is reduced to zero, no further losses are recorded in the Company’s financial statements unless the Company guaranteed obligations of the investee company or has committed additional funding. When the investee company subsequently reports income, the Company will not record its share of such income until it equals the amount of its share of losses not previously recognized.

Upon a sale of an equity method investment by the Company, the difference between sales proceeds and the carrying amount of the equity investment is recognized in profit or loss. Upon the issuance of securities by the equity method investee in an observable price transaction, the Company will account for the share issuance by an investee as if the Company had sold a proportionate share of its investment in the transaction and records a gain or loss associated with the Company’s dilution of its investment with respect to the transaction. As such the Company will increase or decrease its basis in the non-marketable equity of the investee and record a gain or loss associated with the dilution of the investment basis based on the fair value indicated by the issuance of the securities. The resulting gain or loss related to the dilution is recorded within other income or expense in the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).


[6] Income Taxes

The Company accounts for income taxes in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) Topic 740, Income Taxes (ASC 740), which requires the Company to use the assets and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under the assets and liability method, deferred income taxes are recognized for the tax consequences of temporary (timing) differences by applying enacted statutory tax rates applicable to future years to differences between financial statement carrying amounts and the tax bases of existing assets and liabilities and operating loss and tax credit carry forwards. Under this accounting standard, the effect on deferred income taxes of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is recognized if it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of a deferred tax asset will not be realized. As of September 30, 2022, the Company had total deferred tax assets generated from the Company’s activities totaling $803,000. The Company’s deferred tax assets were offset by a valuation allowance of $533,000 as it was determined that it is more likely than not that certain deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company also had a deferred tax liability of $1,246,000, resulting in a net deferred tax liability position of $976,000.

ASC 740-10, Accounting for Uncertainty in Income Taxes, defines uncertainty in income taxes and the evaluation of a tax position as a two-step process. The first step is to determine whether it is more likely than not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination, including the resolution of any related appeals or litigation based on the technical merits of that position. The second step is to measure a tax position that meets the more-likely-than-not threshold to determine the amount of benefit to be recognized in the financial statements. A tax position is measured at the largest amount of benefit that is greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Tax positions that previously failed to meet the more-likely-than-not recognition threshold should be recognized in the first subsequent period in which the threshold is met. Previously recognized tax positions that no longer meet the more-likely-than-not criteria should be de-recognized in the first subsequent financial reporting period in which the threshold is no longer met. The Company had no uncertain tax positions as of September 30, 2022.

The Company recognizes interest and penalties related to income tax in the income tax provision in the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss).

U.S. federal, state and local income tax returns prior to 2019 are not subject to examination by any applicable tax authorities, except that tax authorities could challenge returns (only under certain circumstances) for earlier years to the extent they generated loss carry-forwards that are available for those future years.

The personal holding company (“PHC”) rules under the Internal Revenue Code impose a 20% tax on a PHC’s undistributed personal holding company income (“UPHCI”), which means, in general, taxable income subject to certain adjustments and reduced by certain distributions to shareholders. For a corporation to be classified as a PHC, it must satisfy two tests: (i) that more than 50% in value of its outstanding shares must be owned directly or indirectly by five or fewer individuals at any time during the second half of the year (after applying constructive ownership rules to attribute stock owned by entities to their beneficial owners and among certain family members and other related parties) (the “Ownership Test”) and (ii) at least 60% of its adjusted ordinary gross income for a taxable year consists of dividends, interest, royalties, annuities and rents (the “Income Test”).

During the second half of 2022 through October 2022, based on available information concerning the Company’s shareholder ownership, the Company did not satisfy the Ownership Test. However, the Company may subsequently be determined to be a PHC in 2022 or in future years if it satisfies both the Ownership Test and Income Test. If the Company were to become a PHC in 2022 or any future year, it would be subject to the 20% tax on its UPHCI. In such event, the Company may issue a special cash dividend to its shareholders in an amount equal to the UPHCI rather than incur the 20% tax.


[7] Leases

Under ASC 842, the Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Right-of-Use (“ROU”) assets and related lease obligations are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of remaining lease payments over the lease term. For this purpose, the Company considers only payments that are fixed and determinable at the time of commencement. As most of the Company's leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The Company's determined incremental borrowing rate is a hypothetical rate based on its understanding of what the Company's credit rating would be. The ROU asset also includes any lease payments made prior to commencement and is recorded net of any lease incentives received and net of the deferred rent balance on the date of implementation. The Company's lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that it will exercise such options. As permitted under ASC 842, the Company has elected to not recognize ROU assets and related lease obligations for leases with terms of twelve months or less.


[8] Reclassifications

Certain amounts in prior periods’ unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been recast and reclassified to conform to the current year’s presentation.